Linde GmbH

Barometric scale factor

The effective ambiant pressure (barometric reading) is used for a multitude of glass calculations. If this effective ambiant pressure is unknown, this formula assists to calculate the theoretical ambiant pressure.
Height above sea level

Standard and operating conditions

Often, volumina have to be converted into standard or operation conditions. Standard volumina are to be used to compare volumina with each other; operation volumina are to be used for dimensioning of machines, determination of speeds etc.
Standard cubic meter [Vo]
or operation cubic meter [V]
Effective or theoretical ambiant pressure [B]
Gas temperature [T]
Gas pressure [p]

Oxygen supply

In order to compare corrosive gas parts, they have to refer to a determined oxygen content. For all glass melting lines glass (except for purely electrically heated furnaces) applies a fixed O2 supply of 8 Vol.-%, whereas 11 Vol.-% are applicable regarding power plant technology,
Measured corrosive gas part (impurities)
Measured oxygen content
Chosen resp. applicable oxygen content

Leak air

In any melting process, there is leak air entering the system by which energy is consumed unnecessarily. This volume of leak air (and thus the quality of the process) can be calculated on the basis of the varying oxygen concentrations that are measured within the melting aggregate.
Exhaust gas volume (waste)
Oxygen content after entry of leak air
Oxygen content before entry of leak air or by combustion (l)

Diagram humidity/HX

By means of the relative air humidity which can for example be determined by a hygrometer, you can calculate the content of water vapour of air. This steam content, although having only minor influence on the characteristics of air, plays a mayor role, as this water has to be heated up and be evaporated with additional energy.
Theoretical or effective ambiant pressure
Air temperature
Relative humidity

Info Grid

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